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Some ideas about HOW COACHing Adaptations are  showing up in the world...

The Making of an Expert

K. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula, and Edward T. Cokely

Harvard Business Review: July - August, 2007  REPRINT: R0707J


Popular lore tells us that genius is born, not made. Scientific research, on the other hand, reveals that true expertise is mainly the product of years of intense practice and dedicated coaching. Ordinary practice is not enough: To reach elite levels of performance, you need to constantly push yourself beyond your abilities and comfort level. Such discipline is the key to becoming an expert in all domains, including management and leadership.


Those are the conclusions reached by Ericsson, a professor of psychology at Florida State University; Prietula, a professor at the Goizueta Business School; and Cokely, a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, who together studied data on the behavior of experts, gathered by more than 100 scientists. What consistently distinguished elite surgeons, chess players, writers, athletes, pianists, and other experts was the habit of engaging in “deliberate” practice—a sustained focus on tasks that they couldn’t do before. Experts continually analyzed what they did wrong, adjusted their techniques, and worked arduously to correct their errors.


Even such traits as charisma can be developed using this technique. Working with a drama school, the authors created a set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives’ powers of charm and persuasion. Through deliberate practice, leaders can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors.


The journey to elite performance is not for the impatient or the faint of heart. It takes at least a decade and requires the guidance of an expert teacher to provide tough, often painful feedback. It also demands would-be experts to develop their “inner coach” and eventually drive their own progress.

Late Interventions Matter:  The Case of College Coaching New Hampshire

Carrell, S., & Sacerdote, B. (2013). Late interventions matter too: The case of college coaching New Hampshire (NBER Working Paper 19031). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from


The authors found, and the WWC confirmed, a statistically significant effect of the intervention on postsecondary enrollment: Students who were offered the chance to participate in the coaching program were more likely to enroll in a postsecondary institution than students who were not offered the chance to participate (57% vs. 52%). However, there was a statistically significant interaction with student gender, such that the intervention improved the postsecondary enrollment rate for women (63% in the intervention group vs. 50% in the comparison group), but for men, enrollment rates were virtually identical across the two groups (about 53%). The authors found that the intervention effects on postsecondary enrollment were similar for both non-White students and White students, and for students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch and students not eligible for this program.


For postsecondary enrollment in 3 or more semesters after high school graduation, the authors did not find a statistically significant difference between the intervention and comparison groups overall. However, as with the analysis of postsecondary enrollment, there was a statistically significant interaction with gender. The intervention increased the likelihood that women were enrolled in 3 or more semesters of college after high school (37% vs. 28%), but for men, the rates were virtually identical, at 44% across both groups.


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College Educated Millenials: A Overview of their Personal Finances

TIAA-CREF Institute  February, 2014

Millennials have been characterized as having high expectations for both professional and personal life (Bishop, 2006). A 2011 study found that three-quarters of Gen Y respondents felt confident about achieving their goals and 80 percent reported having high expectations for themselves (Bresiger, 2011). With such lofty—and perhaps unrealistic— expectations, Gen Y is also prone to higher-than-average levels of disappointment. According to a 2010 study by the Pew Research Center, Millennials are the most dissatisfied with their current earnings in the context of their ability to lead a desirable lifestyle (Taylor and Keeter, 2010). This disappointment is not unwarranted. In 2010, Gen Y had an average level of wealth that was 7 percent below the average level of wealth of those in their 20s and 30s in 1983 (Steuerle, McKernan, Ratcliffe, and Zhang, 2013). 


Originally examined in the content of the socio-economically disadvantaged communities or high poverty communities as an asset building strategy; and later, as a strategy to ensure that post-conflict veterans had the skills to successfully integrate into non-military environments, financial capabilities coaching supports the diversity of a technology generation with a proliferation of data, but that require more support with financial decisional information.



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